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制造业与互联网的融合
2017-12-14 16:44:45

    20世纪初福特公司一台电机出现故障,很多工程师都修不好,于是聘请德国专家斯坦门茨来维修。斯坦门茨在电机旁边观察边敲打,然后用粉笔在电机外壳画了一条线:“打开电机,在记号处把里面的线圈减少16圈。”福特工程师半信半疑地将线圈减少,结果电机真的好了。

Ford, a motor failure in the early 20th century, many engineers are bad, then hired German experts stern door to repair.Stern door, at the edge of the motor to beat, and then drew a line on the motor shell with chalk: "open the motor, reduce the coil in the 16 at mark."Ford engineers with a grain of salt to reduce coil, the motor is really good.

    这次电机维修斯坦门茨收取了1万美元酬金,他还特地列了一张费用说明:“用粉笔画一条线1美元,知道在哪里画这条线9999美元。”
    当时,这个故事被贴上“知识就是财富”的标签,其实放在今天的工业企业场景中,这是一个“专家经验发挥价值”的典型。

Ford, a motor failure in the early 20th century, many engineers are bad, then hired German experts stern door to repair.Stern door, at the edge of the motor to beat, and then drew a line on the motor shell with chalk: "open the motor, reduce the coil in the 16 at mark."Ford engineers with a grain of salt to reduce coil, the motor is really good.


    经验主义与数据价值的博弈
    在工业经济时代,经验主义一度发挥着不可替代的价值。
    不夸张地说,当代制造业基本都走过一段经验主义道路,靠习惯和工作经验来管理企业,靠老师傅在一线车间的经验传帮带徒弟。
直到ERP的诞生,将企业的管理思想逐渐固化和规范下来,用ERP改造管理经验主义;到MES的应用,将企业生产制造的流程固化和规范下来,用MES改造生产制造经验主义。

Ford, a motor failure in the early 20th century, many engineers are bad, then hired German experts stern door to repair.Stern door, at the edge of the motor to beat, and then drew a line on the motor shell with chalk: "open the motor, reduce the coil in the 16 at mark."Ford engineers with a grain of salt to reduce coil, the motor is really good.


    但不得不说,工业经济时代企业内外部环境相对稳定,挖出多少铁矿石就一定能生产出多少铁或钢材,相对简单的干扰条件,经验主义几乎可以准确地预测和分析结果。而现在,市场的瞬息万变、技术的飞速发展、工业设备的升级换代,专家的经验主义是否还能上演“斯坦门茨”般的神奇?

Ford, a motor failure in the early 20th century, many engineers are bad, then hired German experts stern door to repair.Stern door, at the edge of the motor to beat, and then drew a line on the motor shell with chalk: "open the motor, reduce the coil in the 16 at mark."Ford engineers with a grain of salt to reduce coil, the motor is really good.


    也许并不能。
    现今的制造企业,是一个由数据充斥的商业综合体,其数据有很多种。简单列举就包括数据采集、数据存储与备份、数据安全、数据建模与可视化、数据分析与预测等过程数据;涉及的数据类型包括静态数据和动态数据,也可以分为实时数据和非实时数据,还可以分为结构化数据、半结构化数据和非结构化数据,来源包括企业的信息系统、设备、传感器、供应链以及社交网络。

Ford, a motor failure in the early 20th century, many engineers are bad, then hired German experts stern door to repair.Stern door, at the edge of the motor to beat, and then drew a line on the motor shell with chalk: "open the motor, reduce the coil in the 16 at mark."Ford engineers with a grain of salt to reduce coil, the motor is really good.


    如何从这些种类繁多的数据中挖掘价值?如何让企业从依靠经验主义过度到数据价值洞察阶段?这既是一个相互博弈的过程,也是一个不断探索和实践的过程。
    制造业与互联网的鸿沟
    在经验主义和数据价值博弈此消彼长的过程中,互联网技术发挥着巨大的使能作用。但客观来讲,制造业和互联网之间的鸿沟比大家想象得要大。
    笔者曾经参观过很多制造企业,不管是总装线上舞动着机器人手臂的汽车主机厂,或是焊接车间电光火石般的重型装备企业,抑或是需要更换防尘防静电服才能进入的电子企业,还是正在流水线上发酵或装罐的酿酒企业,大多数伴随着轰鸣的机器声、或多或少呛鼻的味道。
    当这些企业将某一单点应用作为样板呈现在同行企业面前时,支撑其业务运行的工艺流程、IT系统或是生产线往往被声声称道,因为还有更多企业没有达到这样的水平。

Ford, a motor failure in the early 20th century, many engineers are bad, then hired German experts stern door to repair.Stern door, at the edge of the motor to beat, and then drew a line on the motor shell with chalk: "open the motor, reduce the coil in the 16 at mark."Ford engineers with a grain of salt to reduce coil, the motor is really good.


    但如果做个横向对比的话,随便一个IT公司的实验室、或是互联网企业的创新中心,都比以重资产着称的制造企业车间高大上得多,其信息化应用也要成熟得多。
    所以,当云计算、大数据、人工智能这些概念铺天盖地袭来的时候,仍然需要对中国制造业的发展现状保持着理性认识:因为还有很多企业MRP都跑不起来,还有很多企业连物料和图纸以及其他技术资料的关联性都做不好,还有很多企业必须依靠手工变更BOM信息。
    事实是,制造业与互联网的融合并没有想象简单,制造业长期固化和累积的习惯、经验、模式,在互联网强调灵活和快速迭代的特性面前,存在着不只是技术就可以逾越的鸿沟。

Ford, a motor failure in the early 20th century, many engineers are bad, then hired German experts stern door to repair.Stern door, at the edge of the motor to beat, and then drew a line on the motor shell with chalk: "open the motor, reduce the coil in the 16 at mark."Ford engineers with a grain of salt to reduce coil, the motor is really good.

    国务院印发《关于深化“互联网+先进制造业”发展工业互联网的指导意见》  
    这也是中国政府大力推动“中国制造2025”战略、2016年出台《关于深化制造业与互联网融合发展的指导意见》、2017年签署发布《关于深化“互联网+先进制造业”发展工业互联网的指导意见》的原因。
    鸿沟虽在,跨越在即。

 

 

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